Fleur de Sel
Note: This is a “classic” Interesting Thing of the Day article from over 10 years ago. It has not been edited recently, so it may contain broken links, outdated information, or other infelicities. We plan to eventually update or retire most classic articles, as time permits.

In general, I don’t have very expensive tastes. I bought my TV for $10 at a garage sale, my home is furnished mostly in low-end IKEA, and I rarely wear anything fancier than jeans and a T-shirt. When it comes to food, though, there are some exceptions to this rule. Although I don’t usually eat like a gourmet, I do take my coffee and cheese pretty seriously, and I like to sample, at least, foods that are rare and unusual—if also somewhat pricey. So I was intrigued by a television show I saw about one of the world’s most expensive kinds of salt: Fleur de Sel (French for “flower of salt”).

Fleur de Sel is produced in several temperate coastal areas around the world—but particularly in France, and within France, particularly in Brittany, on the north coast across the English Channel from Great Britain. It’s a type of sea salt, but a very expensive one indeed. Whereas you might pay US$0.25 for a pound (about 0.5kg) of plain table salt, Fleur de Sel will run upwards of $25 per pound. At 100 times the cost of table salt and ten times the cost of ordinary sea salt, it’s probably not something you’d want to use for everyday cooking. Fleur de Sel is not just any sea salt, though; it owes its price to a very special method of collection, about which more in a moment.

Enriched with Minerals

But let me take a brief detour to talk about sea salt in general, which is becoming increasingly popular in recipes and on store shelves. Why all the fuss? Well, apart from having a coarser texture, which some people prefer, sea salt has a much higher content of other minerals besides sodium chloride. It is, after all, produced by evaporating seawater, which contains a bit of pretty much everything. And the little bits of other stuff, apparently, enhance the flavor. Call me crazy, but I can’t help thinking twice about all those seemingly innocent little extra minerals. Do you know where this ocean has been? A lot of things live (and die) in the ocean, and a lot of waste of every imaginable kind gets dumped there—such as all the sewage from the city of Venice, just to pick a random example. It makes me wonder—in passing—whether this is something I really want to put in my mouth.

To get Fleur de Sel, salt farmers living along the coast allow shallow pools to fill with fresh salt water. As the water evaporates, a thin layer of salt crystals forms on the surface, but the slightest breeze will cause them to sink, and they pick up a grayish color from the clay and minerals at the bottom of the pool. The resulting salt, called Sel Gris, is highly regarded, but there’s something even better. On a very clear and sunny summer day with no wind, the salt layer remains floating on the surface, and is harvested by skimming it off with a rakelike implement at the end of the day. Voilà: Fleur de Sel. Because conditions must be just right for Fleur de Sel to form, the yield is only about one pound for every 80 pounds of Sel Gris.

Crunchy Sprinkles

Fleur de Sel is composed of irregularly shaped grains of salt that are slightly moist and form flakelike clumps. This gives it a much different texture from ordinary salt. It’s crunchy and perhaps slightly less salty than ordinary salt—if that makes any sense. Personally, I can’t detect any other flavors, though some people swear it has the aroma of violets. It is almost always used as a garnish just before food is served; once the salt is dissolved and mixes with other flavors, the difference is even harder to detect. My cynical side says that the real reason for sprinkling Fleur de Sel on a dish at the table is to show off, but then, I’m no authority on such matters.

In any case, I think of Fleur de Sel as the Kopi Luwak of salt—that is, slightly superior in taste to the ordinary varieties, but not to the extent suggested by its price. Then again, gourmet shops often sell it in small containers for as little as $5. Perhaps it’s just the thing for expensive tastes on a budget. —Joe Kissell

More Information

For more information about numerous varieties of salts, including Fleur de Sel, see GourmetSleuth or Summit Spice & Tea Company.

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Fleur de Sel is available (in several different varieties) from Amazon.com’s Gourmet Food Shop. You should also be able to find it at your local gourmet food shop. When looking at ads, keep in mind that Fleur de Sel de Guérande (in Brittany) is generally regarded as superior to the variety produced in the Camargue region of southern France. That said, here are some other online sources: