Cheng Man-Ch'ing
Note: This is a “classic” Interesting Thing of the Day article from over 10 years ago. It has not been edited recently, so it may contain broken links, outdated information, or other infelicities. We plan to eventually update or retire most classic articles, as time permits.

There’s nothing like a good action film, especially if it involves martial arts. Explosions and chases are all well and good, but I like kung fu better. I’ll eagerly watch Jackie Chan, Chow Yun Fat, or even Keanu Reeves give the bad guys a whomping using no weapons other than physical skill and a sharp mind. In the real world, though, I find the best kung fu not in the flashy, Hollywood-friendly jumps and kicks, but in a discipline your grandmother may well practice: the slow, gentle movements of a martial art called t’ai chi ch’uan.

For a westerner, the first challenge in learning about a Chinese martial art is figuring out how to pronounce it. There are several systems for representing Chinese sounds using the Roman alphabet. These varying transliterations have led to numerous spellings (“tai chi chuan,” “t’ai chi ch’uan,” “taijiquan,” etc.) and pronunciations. I’ll leave the details for another article, but if you want to avoid ambiguity it’s best to use the pronunciation “tai ji,” because the chi in “t’ai chi” is not at all the same thing as ch’i (or qi), a Chinese word usually translated as “internal energy.”

Supreme Softness

T’ai chi is based on the principles of Taoism, and its invention dates back about a thousand years. According to legend, a Taoist monk named Chang San Feng was watching a crane trying to catch a snake. Every time the bird struck with its beak, the snake would gently slide out of the way, and this defense was so successful that the crane eventually gave up. Chang remembered Lao Tzu’s words in the Tao Te Ching: “The soft overcomes the hard.” This image led him to develop a fighting art based on softness, yielding, and flexibility, rather than brute force.

The name “t’ai chi ch’uan” literally means “supreme ultimate fist,” a reference to the fact that it was considered the most advanced, and deadliest, form of boxing. For centuries, t’ai chi was a closely guarded secret, taught only to the members and close associates of a few powerful families. A variety of distinctive styles emerged, taking on the names of the families from which they originated. The earliest form was Chen style, which later evolved into Yang, Wu, and Sun styles, among others. Each style has distinctive movements and emphases—some are more athletic and explosive, others more gentle and flowing; some emphasize martial applications, while others focus on health, softness, and the internal movement of energy.

T’ai Chi Basics

The differences, however, are less important than the similarities. All forms of t’ai chi follow several basic principles, including relaxation, rootedness, separation of weight, and smooth, continuous movement from the body’s center or tan t’ien. A t’ai chi student spends months or years learning the solo form, a series of interconnected postures designed to teach these basic principles, improve balance, and strengthen the leg muscles. (Depending on the style, the number of movements ranges from less than ten to more than a hundred.) Although most schools of t’ai chi don’t include sparring in the manner of karate or judo, it is crucial for students to understand the martial applications of each of the form’s postures. A two-person exercise called push hands—to many, the most compelling aspect of the art—helps to serve this purpose. In push hands, partners help each other identify areas of tension by trying to push the other person off balance while maintaining their own. T’ai chi training often also includes ch’i kung, exercises that develop healthy breathing skills and attention to the flow of one’s energy.

T’ai chi is often referred to as one of the “internal” martial arts, or neijia. In contrast with the so-called external martial arts—karate, jiu-jitsu, taekwondo, and so on—internal or “soft” martial arts focus on the movement of energy within the body. Internal martial arts do not rely on muscular strength, so hard kicks, punches, and blocks are not commonly employed. Instead, a minimum of external energy is used, and skilled practitioners blend with, rather than block or deflect, their opponents’ energy. Other internal martial arts include pa kua, hsing-i, and aikido.

Judging Your Progress

Each school and teacher takes a slightly different approach to t’ai chi. There are no ranks or belts as there are in many martial arts, as it is considered more important for an individual to assess internal growth than to take an objective measure of skill or fighting ability. Besides, t’ai chi is a very subtle art that takes most people quite a long time to master. (As one my teachers is fond of saying, progress in t’ai chi is measured in decades.) Nevertheless, t’ai chi tournaments and competitions are quite popular. In some cases, judges grade an individual’s execution of the solo form, based on adherence to the basic principles. Push-hands is also done competitively, with points given for causing one’s opponent to lose balance. T’ai chi tournaments tend to have a much greater spirit of camaraderie and respect than most competitive sporting events.

People take up the practice of t’ai chi for a variety of reasons. For many, health and fitness are the primary motivations. And without doubt, t’ai chi is an excellent way to reduce blood pressure, improve circulation, strengthen muscles and bones, and develop balance. Because the movements are slow and gentle, people of any age or level of fitness can participate and benefit. Other people study t’ai chi for its martial applications, and still others like to think of it as yoga in motion—a sort of moving meditation.

My Two Left Feet

When I first started studying t’ai chi in the mid-1990s, I didn’t know anything about its history or applications, and certainly wasn’t interested in learning how to fight. My initial motivation was much more mundane: I simply wanted to learn how to move my body gracefully. I had never learned to dance or been involved in sports of any kind, and I felt clumsy and out of touch with my own body. T’ai chi certainly gave me what I was looking for. I began to develop much better balance, posture, and flexibility. And as I learned more about what it feels like to move in a deliberate and graceful way, dancing and other types of movement began to feel much more natural too.

The surprising thing, though, was that the most important lessons I learned from t’ai chi had nothing to do with physical movement at all. For one thing, I learned to relax much more easily than I could before, and by relaxing I developed a greater sense of equanimity and flexibility in dealing with other people. I found myself unconsciously applying the principles of softness and yielding to my conversations, and this frequently improved the outcome of arguments and other tense situations. Don’t get me wrong: studying t’ai chi hasn’t turned me into some sort of enlightened master exuding radiant bliss. It’s just that, on the whole, I’m calmer and more agreeable than I used to be, and, I can hope, moving further in that direction.

Don’t Try This at Home

If you’re interested in learning t’ai chi, let me offer just one word of unsolicited advice: find a good teacher. Do not attempt to learn t’ai chi by reading a book or watching a video. There are many fine books and videos, of course, and these can supplement or enhance your training. But they can never correct you when your posture is incorrect—which, I can almost guarantee, will be most of the time for the first many months. No matter how hard I try to follow my teacher’s instructions and example, I often find that I’m doing something wrong, usually because the wrong way is more comfortable than the right way. The tendency to do the comfortable thing rather than the right thing is even stronger when no one is watching. (No proverb intended.)

In some ways, practicing t’ai chi has fed my appetite for contradiction. It’s an exercise I enjoy even though I hate exercise, and it’s a martial art I believe in despite my pacifist leanings. And yet, somehow, it all makes sense. T’ai chi is, after all about balance—yin and yang, inner and outer, negative and positive. Cultivating these contrasts gives me a deeper appreciation of what lies at the center. —Joe Kissell

More Information

Special thanks to Rev. Heng Sure of the Berkeley Buddhist Monastery for coaching in Chinese pronunciation for today’s audio recording. (Any mistakes are mine alone!)

If you want to learn more about t’ai chi ch’uan, any of thousands of Web sites or dozens of books will give you the facts—history, applications, photos, and so on. But you’ll be much better served by finding a local teacher or school and experiencing it first-hand. Check your local yellow pages or do a Web search for a school in your area.

Of the many t’ai chi books I’ve read, some of my favorites are T’ai Chi Classics, translated by Waysun Liao; T’ai Chi Ch’uan: A Simplified Method of Calisthenics for Health and Master Cheng’s Thirteen Chapters on T’ai Chi Ch’üan by Cheng Man-ch’ing; and Wolfe Lowenthal’s There Are No Secrets and Gateway to the Miraculous.

The type of t’ai chi I practice is in the Yang style, which is much gentler and more subtle than the original Chen style. The original Yang form, developed by Yang Cheng-Fu, had 108 postures. In the 1950s, Cheng Man-ch’ing developed a shorter, streamlined version of the Yang style that has only 37 postures, but teaches the same basic principles as the long form. This variation, sometimes called the “Yang style short form,” is the one with which I’m most familiar. The Cheng Man-ch’ing style is quite popular in the US and parts of Europe, though it is not taken very seriously in China. Many of Cheng Man-ch’ing’s students are still teaching, and quite a few of them have written books. If you can locate a teacher who studied with Cheng or one of his students, you’ll be in very good hands. When investigating a school or teacher, ask about their lineage. If you hear names such as T.T. Liang, William C.C. Chen, Wolfe Lowenthal, Terry Dunn, Abraham Liu, Ben Lo, Chris Luth, or Martin Inn, you’ll know that what they teach is based on Cheng Man-ch’ing’s form.

If you live in San Francisco, check out the school I attend, Attaining Harmony School of T’ai Chi Ch’uan, or the Inner Research Institute.

VHS/DVD), directed by Ang Lee and starring the late Sihung Lung (Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon; cover art

Although there aren’t many action films that do justice to t’ai chi, Pushing Hands (VHS/DVD), directed by Ang Lee and starring the late Sihung Lung (Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon; Eat Drink Man Woman), is excellent. The film includes a wonderful push-hands scene, but is mainly about the metaphorical lessons of t’ai chi, as a retired t’ai chi master from Beijing adjusts to life in America with his son and daughter-in-law.