this weekHanding It to You

September 4, 2004

Revenge of the Analog Clock

Time for a pie chart

Interesting Time of the Day

Author Douglas Adams famously made fun of earthlings for being “so amazingly primitive that they still think digital watches are a pretty neat idea.” Shortly before he died, Adams gave a talk at the University of California, Santa Barbara (not far from his home), at the end of which there was a brief question-and-answer session. A woman stood up and asked Adams the question that had been bothering her for decades: what did he have against digital watches? The crowd probably expected him to toss off a witty one-liner in response. Instead, he gave a very thoughtful answer that, in true Douglas Adams fashion, made ordinary human behavior seem self-evidently absurd.

After admitting that his comment had originally been written in the days when digital watches were themselves fairly primitive (and, ironically, required two hands to operate), Adams couched his complaint—appropriately—using an analogy. In the early days of personal computers, he said, people got very excited that their spreadsheet programs could finally create pie charts. This was considered a revolutionary advance, because as everyone knows, a pie chart visually represents a part-whole relationship in a way that is immediately obvious—a way that, to be more specific, mere columns of numbers did not. Well, the hands of an analog timepiece form wedges that look very much like a pie chart, and like a pie chart, they represent a sort of part-whole relationship in a way that requires a bare minimum of mental effort to comprehend. Not so digital timepieces, which for all their precision say nothing about the relationship of one time of day to another.

Ticked Off
Although digital watches have their place and are in no danger of becoming extinct, analog models have enjoyed a steady comeback over the past decade or two, and I think that’s just marvelous. Now, I’ve always liked digital watches, partly for the practical reason that they tend to be very accurate, and partly because the absence of moving parts strikes me as elegantly minimalist. But when I stopped to think about it, I realized that it is far less useful to know that it’s 10:13 than that it’s quarter past ten, and that when I read the time in a digital format, I nearly always have to perform an additional mental calculation to figure out what time it “really” is—that is, what that string of numbers actually means in terms of how much of the day has gone by or how much longer I can sleep before getting up to go to work. And, naturally, with very few exceptions, analog timepieces are much easier to set than their digital cousins.

Studies have shown alarmingly that many children today—and even a fair number of adults—cannot tell time using an analog clock or watch because they have only ever been exposed to digital timepieces. Presumably, someone whose only experience of timekeeping has been digital would not expend any extra mental effort figuring out how much of an hour had elapsed at 7:52—but then, such a person may have to think harder on other occasions, being unable to visually judge the “distance” between two times. Be that as it may, one clearly must be able at least to identify numbers and count in order to tell time with a digital watch, whereas even without knowing any numbers, someone can tell roughly what time of day it is using an analog watch.

Or consider the digital watch I own that has a built-in (digital) compass. I press a button and the readout tells me that the direction I’m facing is 103° E-SE, but this information becomes useful to me only when I line up the little dial on the outside with that number so I can tell visually which way is north. By including an analog dial with the digital compass, the watch manufacturer tacitly acknowledges the superiority of the “pie chart” concept in judging direction (if not time).

Second Opinion
Analog timepieces—even the ones whose hands decisively click into well-defined positions rather than moving smoothly in a circle—convey a fuzzy or approximate sense of time at a casual glance. This is a good thing, not only for the sake of children’s education but because time itself is continuous, not an infinite series of discrete steps. Units like seconds, minutes, and hours are just a convenient fiction, after all—they don’t represent anything objectively real in the world. As linguist George Lakoff pointed out in his book Women, Fire, and Dangerous Things, we like to talk about time as though it were money—a thing that can be spent, saved, earned, or wasted—but this is all merely a conceit of language. Thus, to the extent that analog timepieces distance us less from reality than digital ones do, I’ve got to believe they help to keep us ever-so-slightly more human.

Some people have argued that analog watches, for all their merits, are still too complicated because they artificially divide the day into two arbitrary cycles; there are, unsurprisingly, 24-hour clocks and watches of various designs intended to address this limitation. When an hour hand goes around a dial just once per day, it’s easier to picture what it’s an analog of: namely, the rotation of the Earth (more or less). A sundial, needless to say, gives a representation of time that’s even closer cognitively to its source, but much less accurate (and inconveniently nonfunctional at night).

Nowadays, it’s possible to make analog timepieces every bit as accurate as digital models, and for those who dislike a ticking sound or prefer the no-moving-parts aesthetic, you can even buy watches and clocks with analog-like “hands” formed by the segments of an LCD. In short, the analog clock is having its revenge by providing all the benefits of digital timepieces in a human-brain-friendly package. None of this is news; I could have written the same thing a decade ago. But it is exciting that we earthlings are somehow able to come to our senses and overcome these collective blips of faulty judgment. Let’s all keep up the good work. —Joe Kissell

More Information about Revenge of the Analog Clock…

For more on analog vs. digital timepieces, see:

You can hear Douglas Adams talk about timepieces in his own words in Douglas Adams: Parrots, the Universe and Everything, in RealVideo. The brief discussion of digital watches and pie charts begins at 1:23:23, near the end of the 87-minute video. Also be sure to read The History of the Digital Watch at h2g2.

cover art

If you or your child want to learn how to tell time, check out Telling Time: How to Tell Time on Digital and Analog Clocks! by Jules Older and Megan Halsey. To learn more about linguistic categories, read Women, Fire, and Dangerous Things by George Lakoff.